Glycemic and Insulin Status in Periodontitis Patients using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA): A Pilot Study

Oral Health Prev Dent. 2023 Jan 18;21(1):2-6. doi: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3818027.


Purpose: This study aimed to compare insulin status and dysglycemia (prediabetes/diabetes) of patients with chronic (stage III, grade B) or aggressive periodontitis (stage III, grade C) to that of a healthy population.

Materials and methods: Patients with chronic (CP, n = 16) or aggressive periodontitis (AP, n = 15) and periodontally healthy controls (n = 32) were recruited. Body mass index was calculated. Glycemia, plasma insulin, glycated hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and lipid levels were measured in fasting. The Homeostasis Model Assessment was used to calculate the insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S), the beta-cell function (HOMA-%B), and their hyperbolic product (HOMA-%BxS).

Results: The CP group showed statistically significantly insulin resistance with a lower HOMA-%S (p = 0.0003) and a reduced HOMA-%BxS (p = 0.049) despite a higher insulin level (p = 0.01) vs the control group, even after BMI adjustment. There was also a trend to dysglycemia (prediabetes/diabetes) in the chronic group. In patients with AP, no abnormalities in insulin status were observed and glycemic levels were comparable with controls. Additionally, patients in both AP and CP groups presented significantly higher CRP levels compared to those of the control group (p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Patients with CP showed reduced insulin sensitivity, increased insulin levels but a reduced %BxS product and a trend to dysglycemia. These abnormalities were not observed in AP.

Keywords: diabetes; periodontal disease; risk factor(s); systemic health/disease.

MeSH terms

  • Aggressive Periodontitis*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prediabetic State*


  • Insulin
  • Blood Glucose