Evidence for Implementation: HIV/HCV Coinfection and Pregnancy

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2023 Feb;20(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11904-022-00643-9. Epub 2023 Jan 18.


Purpose of review: In the context of the opioid epidemic, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence is increasing among women of reproductive age. Pregnant people with HIV/HCV coinfection may be at increased risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, although research in this key population is lacking.

Recent findings: Treatment with directly acting antivirals (DAAs) has transformed the clinical care for most patients with HCV. However, pregnant people were excluded from trials of these medications. A recent phase I study has shown promise with excellent safety profile for ledipasvir-sofosbuvir; demonstrating no episodes of perinatal transmission, 100% sustained virologic response, and no safety concerns. Pregnancy represents a time of maximal interaction with the healthcare system and therefore an ideal window of opportunity to cure HCV. Current observational data regarding pregnant people who are co-infected with HCV and HIV suggest poor outcomes such as increased risk of preterm birth; however, there are no prospective and well-controlled studies to fully understand the impact of HIV/HCV coinfection on pregnancy. Phase 1 studies suggest that DAAs are well-tolerated and effective during pregnancy. Only through large, prospective clinical trials will we be able to understand the interaction of HCV and HIV during pregnancy and to evaluate safety and efficacy of DAAs in this key population.

Keywords: Directly acting antivirals; HIV/HCV coinfection; Perinatal HCV; Perinatal HIV.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Coinfection* / drug therapy
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Hepacivirus
  • Hepatitis C* / complications
  • Hepatitis C* / drug therapy
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control
  • Pregnancy
  • Premature Birth* / chemically induced
  • Premature Birth* / drug therapy


  • Antiviral Agents