Emerging targets for cancer treatment: S100A9/RAGE

ESMO Open. 2023 Feb;8(1):100751. doi: 10.1016/j.esmoop.2022.100751. Epub 2023 Jan 16.


Developing better treatments that work for the majority of patients with brain metastasis (BM) is highly necessary. Complementarily, avoiding those therapeutic procedures that will not benefit a specific patient is also very relevant. In general, existing therapies for patients with BM could be improved in terms of molecular stratification and therapeutic efficacy. By questioning the benefit of whole brain radiotherapy as provided nowadays and the lack of biomarkers detecting radioresistance, we identified S100A9 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) as a liquid biopsy biomarker and a potential target for a radiosensitizer, respectively. Both of them are being clinically tested as part of the first comprehensive molecular strategy to personalized radiotherapy in BM.

Keywords: JunB; NF-κB; RAGE; S100A9; brain metastasis; clinical trial with RAGE inhibitor; observational prospective study; radioresistance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Calgranulin B*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms*
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products / metabolism


  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Calgranulin B
  • Biomarkers