DNA Sequencing Methods: From Past to Present

Eurasian J Med. 2022 Dec;54(Suppl1):47-56. doi: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2022.22280.


Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a highly effective genetic diagnostic test used in disease diagnosis. Although the Sanger method is used as the traditional method in genome studies, the use of NGS methods has been increasing with the development of technology. The foundation of next-generation sequencing was laid with the methods developed by Allan Maxam-Walter Gilbert and 2 Nobel laureates, Frederick Sanger. Initially, first-generation sequencing methods completed a certain part of the DNA with great efforts in a few days, while in today's technology, the entire DNA of even the most complex organisms is sequenced in 1 day. Second- and third-generation sequencing methods have been developed with improvements in cost, time, and accuracy of sequencing. The data obtained from these methods are interpreted with bioinformatics and contributed to the development of next-generation sequencing technology. These developments have increased the interest in studies on the relationship between next-generation sequencing and DNA or RNA depending on diseases. In this review, past and present methods of next-generation sequencing technologies are mentioned in detail and the difficulties and conveniences of these methods are reviewed.