Components of frailty, sarcopenia and their association with vitamin D deficiency. Cross-sectional, analytical study

Gac Med Mex. 2022;158(6):343-348. doi: 10.24875/GMM.M22000711.

Abstract

Introduction: In older adults, the association of frailty and sarcopenia with vitamin D deficiency is well known, but the association of the components of frailty syndrome has been poorly studied.

Objective: To determine the association of the components of frailty and sarcopenia with vitamin D insufficiency in older adults.

Methods: Adults were studied, in whom age, education, marital status, history of fractures, hospitalizations, anthropometric indicators, sarcopenia, Charlson index, polypharmacy, Fried's frailty phenotype, and plasma vitamin D were recorded; figures < 30 ng/mL were considered indicative of vitamin D insufficiency. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for statistical analysis. The association was determined by binary logistic regression.

Results: One-hundred and seventy-five adults with a mean age of 71.7 ± 6.7 years (95% CI = 60-90 years) were studied. Binary logistic regression showed that the variables associated with vitamin D deficiency were exhaustion (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.5, p = 0.03), frailty (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.5-34.1, p = 0.001) and pre-frailty (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.1-10.0, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The frail and pre-frail phenotypes, as well as exhaustion, are associated with vitamin D insufficiency.

Introducción: En adultos mayores, la asociación de fragilidad y sarcopenia con deficiencia de vitamina D es conocida, pero poco se ha estudiado la asociación de los componentes del síndrome de fragilidad.

Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre los componentes de fragilidad, sarcopenia e insuficiencia de vitamina D en adultos mayores.

Métodos: Se estudiaron adultos de quienes se registró edad, escolaridad, estado civil, antecedentes de fracturas, hospitalizaciones, indicadores antropométricos, sarcopenia, índice de Charlson, polifarmacia, fenotipo de fragilidad de Fried y vitamina D plasmática; cifras < 30 ng/mL se consideraron indicativas de insuficiencia de vitamina D. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial. La asociación fue determinada mediante regresión logística binaria.

Resultados: Se estudiaron 175 adultos con un promedio de edad de 71.7 ± 6.7 años (IC 95 % = 60-90 años). La regresión logística binaria demostró que las variables asociadas a insuficiencia de vitamina D fueron agotamiento (RM = 2.6, IC 95 % = 1.0-6.5, p = 0.03), fragilidad (RM = 9.2, IC 95 % = 2.5-34.1, p = 0.001) y prefragilidad (RM = 4.6, IC 95 % = 2.1-10.0, p < 0.001).

Conclusión: Los fenotipos frágil, prefrágil y agotamiento se asocian a insuficiencia de vitamina D.

Keywords: Adulto mayor; Fragilidad; Frailty; Insufficiency; Insuficiencia; Older adult; Sarcopenia; Vitamin D; Vitamina D.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Frail Elderly
  • Frailty* / epidemiology
  • Frailty* / etiology
  • Humans
  • Sarcopenia* / epidemiology
  • Sarcopenia* / etiology
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / epidemiology
  • Vitamins

Substances

  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamins