A Survey on Deep Learning in COVID-19 Diagnosis

J Imaging. 2022 Dec 20;9(1):1. doi: 10.3390/jimaging9010001.


According to the World Health Organization statistics, as of 25 October 2022, there have been 625,248,843 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 65,622,281 deaths worldwide. The spread and severity of COVID-19 are alarming. The economy and life of countries worldwide have been greatly affected. The rapid and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 directly affects the spread of the virus and the degree of harm. Currently, the classification of chest X-ray or CT images based on artificial intelligence is an important method for COVID-19 diagnosis. It can assist doctors in making judgments and reduce the misdiagnosis rate. The convolutional neural network (CNN) is very popular in computer vision applications, such as applied to biological image segmentation, traffic sign recognition, face recognition, and other fields. It is one of the most widely used machine learning methods. This paper mainly introduces the latest deep learning methods and techniques for diagnosing COVID-19 using chest X-ray or CT images based on the convolutional neural network. It reviews the technology of CNN at various stages, such as rectified linear units, batch normalization, data augmentation, dropout, and so on. Several well-performing network architectures are explained in detail, such as AlexNet, ResNet, DenseNet, VGG, GoogleNet, etc. We analyzed and discussed the existing CNN automatic COVID-19 diagnosis systems from sensitivity, accuracy, precision, specificity, and F1 score. The systems use chest X-ray or CT images as datasets. Overall, CNN has essential value in COVID-19 diagnosis. All of them have good performance in the existing experiments. If expanding the datasets, adding GPU acceleration and data preprocessing techniques, and expanding the types of medical images, the performance of CNN will be further improved. This paper wishes to make contributions to future research.

Keywords: COVID-19; CT images; X-ray images; classification; convolutional neural networks; deep learning; diagnosis; transfer learning.

Publication types

  • Review