Effects of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Dioxin-like PCBs on Teeth and Bones in Animals and Humans

Toxics. 2022 Dec 21;11(1):7. doi: 10.3390/toxics11010007.


Bone metabolism is regulated by endocrine systems, so people exposed to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may suffer adverse effects on bones and teeth. We reviewed previous publications in which effects of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls on the teeth and bones of animals and humans were found. The aim was to identify future research directions, particularly for epidemiological studies of populations exposed to PCDD/Fs in the environment. Exposure of fetuses to PCDD/Fs may affect odontogenesis, particularly enamel formation, but the effects of PCDD/Fs on bone genesis are limited to palatine bone. Exposure to PCDD/Fs in milk may affect both teeth and bones, but the effects on bones may be reversible. Exposure to high PCDD/F concentrations even during adulthood may adversely affect teeth. Exposure to PCDD/Fs may induce osteogenesis and improve bone properties because the disrupting effects of PCDD/Fs cause bone remodeling and vitamin D activation. More studies involving humans are required to investigate previously found associations between the PCDD/F concentrations humans are exposed to and biological markers for teeth and bones, including metabolites of vitamin D.

Keywords: animals; bone; dioxin-like PCB; dioxins; human; teeth.

Publication types

  • Review

Grant support

This research received no external funding.