Engineering Advanced Drug Delivery Systems for Dry Eye: A Review

Bioengineering (Basel). 2022 Dec 31;10(1):53. doi: 10.3390/bioengineering10010053.


Dry eye disease (DED) is a widespread and frequently reported multifactorial ocular disease that not only causes ocular discomfort but also damages the cornea and conjunctiva. At present, topical administration is the most common treatment modality for DED. Due to the existence of multiple biological barriers, instilled drugs generally exhibit short action times and poor penetration on the ocular surface. To resolve these issues, several advanced drug delivery systems have been proposed. This review discusses new dosage forms of drugs for the treatment of DED in terms of their characteristics and advantages. Innovative formulations that are currently available in the market and under clinical investigation are elaborated. Meanwhile, their deficiencies are discussed. It is envisioned that the flourishing of advanced drug delivery systems will lead to improved management of DED in the near future.

Keywords: drug delivery; dry eye disease; new dosage forms; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review