The Importance of Resilience and Level of Anxiety in the Process of Making a Decision about SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Jan 5;20(2):999. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20020999.


People's opinions on immunization are diverse. Despite the constant improvement of vaccine formulas, the number of people reluctant to immunize is not decreasing. The purpose of our study is to assess the psychological determinants of immunization reluctance in depth. We measured levels of anxiety (death-related and general), fear of COVID-19, self-esteem and resilience among 342 adults. We found that the level of COVID-19 related fear is higher among the vaccinated population, despite general anxiety levels being lower. Surprisingly we didn't find significant differences in resilience and self-esteem levels. Findings are concurrent with previous research-COVID-19 related fear level is higher among vaccinated people. Resilience and self-esteem are defined as stable, trait-like constructs, and thus may not manifest higher levels in very specific pandemic situations, although they may lower the levels of general anxiety.

Keywords: COVID-19 fear; COVID-19 vaccination; anxiety; pandemic; resilience; self-esteem; vaccine hesitancy.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / epidemiology
  • COVID-19 Vaccines*
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccination


  • COVID-19 Vaccines

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.