Toll-like Receptors and Thrombopoiesis

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jan 5;24(2):1010. doi: 10.3390/ijms24021010.


Platelets are the second most abundant blood component after red blood cells and can participate in a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Beyond its traditional role in hemostasis and thrombosis, it also plays an indispensable role in inflammatory diseases. However, thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic problem in the clinic, and it presents a proportional relationship with the fatality of many diseases. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of thrombocytopenia is of great importance. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is one of the most relevant characteristics of thrombopoiesis and the platelet inflammatory function. We know that the TLR family is found on the surface or inside almost all cells, where they perform many immune functions. Of those, TLR2 and TLR4 are the main stress-inducing members and play an integral role in inflammatory diseases and platelet production and function. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present and discuss the relationship between platelets, inflammation and the TLR family and extend recent research on the influence of the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways and the regulation of platelet production and function. Reviewing the interaction between TLRs and platelets in inflammation may be a research direction or program for the treatment of thrombocytopenia-related and inflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: TLR2; TLR4; inflammation; platelet; thrombopoiesis; toll-like receptors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Thrombocytopenia* / metabolism
  • Thrombopoiesis*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptors