Human body is colonized by a florid microbial community of bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, helminths, and viruses, known as microbiota, which co-evolves with the host and influences its health through all stages of its life. It is well known that oral microorganisms form highly structurally and functionally organized multi-species biofilms and establish a network of complex mutual inter-species interactions having a primary function in synergy, signaling, or antagonism. This ecological model allows the microorganisms to increase their resistance to antimicrobial agents and settle a balanced microbes-host symbiotic relationship that ensures oral and global health status in humans. The host-associated microbiome is an important factor in human health and disease. Therefore, to develop novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies, microbiome's functions and the reciprocal interactions every microbiome entertains with other microbial communities in the human body are being investigated. This review provides an analysis of the literature about the close connection between the two largest microbial communities in humans: the oral and the gut microbiomes. Furthermore, it focuses on how the alteration of their microbial and functional characteristics can lead to and reciprocally influence the onset of both oral and intestinal microbiome-associated illness, along with the potential role of probiotics in ameliorating inflammation and microbial dysbiosis.
Keywords: dysbiosis; gut microbiome; inflammation; oral microbiome; periodontal disease; periodontitis; probiotics.