Community Integration and Associated Factors 10 Years after Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

J Clin Med. 2023 Jan 4;12(2):405. doi: 10.3390/jcm12020405.


This study evaluated the impact of baseline injury characteristics and one-year functional level on the 10-year community integration outcomes for working-age patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients aged 16-55 and diagnosed with moderate-to-severe TBI within 24 h of injury were eligible for the study. Multivariable hierarchical linear regression was utilized to assess the impact of baseline characteristics and one-year functional measures on the mean Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) scores 10 years after injury. Of 133 original study participants, 97 survived 10 years, and 75 were available for this study. The mean total CIQ score changed positively from one to 10 years post-injury, from 18.7 (±5.5) to 19.8 (±4.8) (p = 0.04). The results suggested that age (β = -0.260, p = 0.013), FIM-Cognitive subscale (β = 0.608, p = 0.002), and the bodily pain subscale (BP) (β = 0.277, p = 0.017) of the SF-36 were significantly associated with the mean CIQ scores. In conclusion, this study demonstrated improved community integration from one to 10 years in a sample of working-age patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. The findings also showed that age, cognitive function, and bodily pain were significant predictors of long-term community integration, suggesting post-acute rehabilitation should focus on factors related to long-term risk and protective factors to improve long-term outcomes.

Keywords: CIQ; community integration; long-term outcome; rehabilitation; traumatic brain injury.