We aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) diagnosis system for uterine smooth muscle tumors (UMTs) by using deep learning. We analyzed the morphological features of UMTs on whole-slide images (233, 108, and 30 digital slides of leiomyosarcomas, leiomyomas, and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential stained with hematoxylin and eosin, respectively). Aperio ImageScope software randomly selected ≥10 areas of the total field of view. Pathologists randomly selected a marked region in each section that was no smaller than the total area of 10 high-power fields in which necrotic, vascular, collagenous, and mitotic areas were labeled. We constructed an automatic identification algorithm for cytological atypia and necrosis by using ResNet and constructed an automatic detection algorithm for mitosis by using YOLOv5. A logical evaluation algorithm was then designed to obtain an automatic UMT diagnostic aid that can "study and synthesize" a pathologist's experience. The precision, recall, and F1 index reached more than 0.920. The detection network could accurately detect the mitoses (0.913 precision, 0.893 recall). For the prediction ability, the AI system had a precision of 0.90. An AI-assisted system for diagnosing UMTs in routine practice scenarios is feasible and can improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; leiomyosarcoma; smooth muscle tumor; training set.