Combined Additive and Laser-Induced Processing of Functional Structures for Monitoring under Deformation

Polymers (Basel). 2023 Jan 14;15(2):443. doi: 10.3390/polym15020443.


This research introduces a readily available and non-chemical combinatorial production approach, known as the laser-induced writing process, to achieve laser-processed conductive graphene traces. The laser-induced graphene (LIG) structure and properties can be improved by adjusting the laser conditions and printing parameters. This method demonstrates the ability of laser-induced graphene (LIG) to overcome the electrothermal issues encountered in electronic devices. To additively process the PEI structures and the laser-induced surface, a high-precision laser nScrypt printer with different power, speed, and printing parameters was used. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed similar results for laser-induced graphene morphology and structural chemistry. Significantly, the 3.2 W laser-induced graphene crystalline size (La; 159 nm) is higher than the higher power (4 W; 29 nm) formation due to the surface temperature and oxidation. Under four-point probe electrical property measurements, at a laser power of 3.8 W, the resistivity of the co-processed structure was three orders of magnitude larger. The LIG structure and property improvement are possible by varying the laser conditions and the printing parameters. The lowest gauge factor (GF) found was 17 at 0.5% strain, and the highest GF found was 141.36 at 5%.

Keywords: additive manufacturing; fused deposition model; laser processing; laser-induced graphene.

Grants and funding

This research was funded by NSF FAMU CREST award- grant number [#735968].