Optimization and cholesterol-lowering activity of exopolysaccharide from Lactiplantibacillus paraplantarum NCCP 962

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2023 Feb;107(4):1189-1204. doi: 10.1007/s00253-023-12372-z. Epub 2023 Jan 21.

Abstract

Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are biological polymers with unique structural features have gained particular interest in the fields of food, chemistry and medicine, and food industry. EPS from the food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be used as a natural food additives to commercial ones in the processing and development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. The current study was aimed to explore the EPS-producing LAB from the dahi; to optimize the fermentation conditions through Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM); and to study its physicochemical, rheological, functional attributes, and cholesterol-lowering activity. Lactiplantibacillus paraplantarum NCCP 962 was isolated among the 08 strains screened at the initial stage. The PB design screened out four independent factors that had a significant positive effect, i.e., lactose, yeast extract, CaCl2, and tryptone, while the remaining seven had a non-significant effect. The RSM exhibited lactose, yeast extract, and CaCl2, significantly contributing to EPS yield. The maximum EPS yield (0.910 g/L) was obtained at 6.57% lactose, 0.047% yeast extract, 0.59% CaCl2, and 1.37% tryptone. The R2 value above 97% explains the higher variability and depicts the model's validity. The resulted EPS was a heteropolysaccharide in nature with mannose, glucose, and galactose monosaccharides. FTIR spectrum reflected the presence of functional groups, i.e., O-H, C-H, C = O, C-O-H, and CH2. SEM revealed a porous and rough morphology of EPS, also found to be thermally stable and negligible weight loss, i.e., 14.0% at 257 °C and 35.4% at 292.9 °C was observed in the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively. Rheological attributes revealed that strain NCCP 962 had high viscosity by increasing the EPS concentration, low pH, and temperature with respectable water holding, oil capacities, foaming abilities, and stability. NCCP 962 EPS possessed up to 46.4% reduction in cholesterol concentration in the supernatant. Conclusively, these results suggested that strain NCCP 962 can be used in food processing applications and other medical fields. KEY POINTS: • The fermentation conditions affect EPS yield from L. paraplantarum and significantly increased yield to 0.910 g/L. • The EPS was heteropolysaccharide in nature and thermally stable with amorphous morphology. • Good cholesterol-lowering potential with the best rheological, emulsifying, and foaming capacities.

Keywords: Cholesterol-lowering activity; Exopolysacchride; Lactiplantibacillus paraplantarum; Response surface methodology; Rheology.