Knobloch Syndrome in Siblings with Posterior Fossa Malformations Along with Cerebellar Midline Cleft Abnormality Caused by Biallelic COL18A1 Mutation: Case-Based Review

J Pediatr Genet. 2020 Dec 10;12(1):58-63. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1721073. eCollection 2023 Mar.

Abstract

Knobloch syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in COL18A1 . KS clinically manifests with the typical eye findings (high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and lens subluxation), variable neurological findings (occipital encephalocele, polymicrogyria, cerebellar malformations, epilepsy, and intellectual disability), and the other uncommon clinical manifestations. Literature review of all KS patients (source PubMed) was done with special reference to cerebellar abnormalities. Here, we report two siblings with typical KS with posterior fossa malformations and novel cerebellar midline cleft abnormality analyzed by whole exome sequencing. Known pathogenic homozygous variant c.2908C > T; (p.Arg970Ter) in exon 26 of COL18A1 was found as a cause for KS. These two siblings presented with early-onset severe ocular manifestations, facial dysmorphism, and variable central nervous system manifestations along with novel cerebellar midline cleft abnormality. The presence or absence of structural brain malformations and genotypes does not absolutely predict cognitive functions in KS patients. However, the presence of posterior fossa abnormality may be predictive for the development of ataxia in later life and needs further studies.

Keywords: Knobloch syndrome; cerebellar vermis midline cleft; lens subluxation; occipital encephalocele; vitreoretinal degeneration.

Grants and funding

Funding This study was funded by Indian Council of Medical Research (File No 5/7/1508/2016).