Association of Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles with Carbamazepine- or Lamotrigine-Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in an Iranian Population: A Case-control Study

Iran J Med Sci. 2023 Jan;48(1):70-76. doi: 10.30476/IJMS.2022.91192.2241.

Abstract

Background: Genetic diversity in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles across populations is a significant risk factor for drug-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), e.g., carbamazepine (CBZ)- and lamotrigine (LTG)-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of different HLA alleles in Iranian patients with CBZ- and LTG-induced SJS/TEN.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted from 2011 to 2018 at various hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran). A total of 31 patients receiving anticonvulsant drugs (CZB or LTG) were recruited and divided into two groups. The drug-induced group (n=14) included hospitalized patients due to CBZ- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN. The drug-tolerant group (n=17) included individuals receiving CBZ or LTG for at least three months with no adverse effects. In addition, 46 healthy individuals (control group) were recruited. The frequency of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 alleles in patients with CZB- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN was investigated. HLA typing was performed using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. The Chi square test and Fisher's exact test were used to determine a potential association between SJS/TEN and HLA alleles. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: CBZ- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN was not significantly associated with HLA alleles. However, HLA-DRB1*01 showed a significantly higher frequency in patients with CBZ-induced SJS/TEN than the CBZ-tolerant patients (30% vs. 9%, P=0.07).

Conclusion: Overall, no significant association was found between CBZ- or LTG-induced SJS/TEN and HLA alleles. Further large-scale studies are required to substantiate our findings.

Keywords: Anticonvulsants; Histocompatibility testing; Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Anticonvulsants* / adverse effects
  • Asian People
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Carbamazepine / adverse effects
  • Case-Control Studies
  • HLA-B Antigens / genetics
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Lamotrigine / adverse effects
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome* / genetics

Substances

  • Anticonvulsants
  • Lamotrigine
  • HLA-B Antigens
  • Carbamazepine
  • Benzodiazepines