TRIM24 controls induction of latent HIV-1 by stimulating transcriptional elongation

Commun Biol. 2023 Jan 23;6(1):86. doi: 10.1038/s42003-023-04484-z.


Binding of USF1/2 and TFII-I (RBF-2) at conserved sites flanking the HIV-1 LTR enhancer is essential for reactivation from latency in T cells, with TFII-I knockdown rendering the provirus insensitive to T cell signaling. We identified an interaction of TFII-I with the tripartite motif protein TRIM24, and these factors were found to be constitutively associated with the HIV-1 LTR. Similar to the effect of TFII-I depletion, loss of TRIM24 impaired reactivation of HIV-1 in response to T cell signaling. TRIM24 deficiency did not affect recruitment of RNA Pol II to the LTR promoter, but inhibited transcriptional elongation, an effect that was associated with decreased RNA Pol II CTD S2 phosphorylation and impaired recruitment of CDK9. A considerable number of genomic loci are co-occupied by TRIM24/TFII-I, and we found that TRIM24 deletion caused altered T cell immune response, an effect that is facilitated by TFII-I. These results demonstrate a role of TRIM24 for regulation of transcriptional elongation from the HIV-1 promoter, through its interaction with TFII-I, and by recruitment of P-TEFb. Furthermore, these factors co-regulate a significant proportion of genes involved in T cell immune response, consistent with tight coupling of HIV-1 transcriptional activation and T cell signaling.

MeSH terms

  • Carrier Proteins
  • HIV Infections*
  • HIV-1* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B / metabolism
  • RNA Polymerase II / metabolism
  • Virus Latency


  • RNA Polymerase II
  • Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B
  • TRIM24 protein, human
  • Carrier Proteins