Isolation and characterization of apical papilla cells from root end of human third molar and their differentiation into cementoblast cells: an in vitro study

Biol Proced Online. 2023 Jan 23;25(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s12575-023-00190-6.


Background: Periodontal regeneration, treatment of periodontal-related diseases and improving the function of implants are global therapeutic challenges. The differentiation of human stem cells from apical papilla into cementoblasts may provide a strategy for periodontitis treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the differentiation of primary human stem cells apical papilla (hSCAPs) to cementoblast cells.

Material and methods: SCAPs cells were isolated from human third molar and then incubated for 21 days in a differentiation microenvironment. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red S staining assays were performed to evaluate the calcium deposition and formation of hydroxyapatite in the cultured hSCAPs microenvironment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed for cementum protein 1 (CEMP1), collagen type I (COL1), F-Spondin (SPON1), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteopontin (OPN) as specific markers of cementoblasts and their progenitors.

Results: ALP phosphatase activity in day 21 of treatment demonstrated a significant increase in ALP compared to the control. Alizarin red S staining assay showed that the differentiated hSCAPs offered a great amount of calcium deposition nodules compared to the control. The increased expression level of CEMP1, OCN, OPN, COL1 and Spon1 was observed in days 7, 14 and 21 compared to the control, while greatest expression level was observed in day 21.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the differentiation microenviroment is convenient and useful for promoting the differentiation of hSCAPs into cementoblast.

Keywords: Apical papilla; Cementoblasts; Differentiation; Stem cells.