Patterns of nonsyndromic tooth agenesis and sexual dimorphism

BMC Oral Health. 2023 Jan 23;23(1):37. doi: 10.1186/s12903-023-02753-1.


Background: Sex dimorphism has been implicated in oral health differences and the pathogenesis of oral diseases, such as tooth agenesis, periodontal disease, dental caries, and tooth loss. Tooth agenesis (TA) is one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans, and its prevalence and patterns are different across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypes and sex-associated patterns of nonsyndromic tooth agenesis (TA) in Thai dental patients.

Methods: One thousand ninety panoramic radiographs were examined. One hundred and one subjects (37 males, 64 females, 15-20 years-old) with nonsyndromic TA were evaluated. Differences in TA prevalence between groups were analyzed using the chi-square or Fisher exact test.

Results: The TA prevalence, excluding third molars, was 9.3% and more frequently found in the mandible compared with the maxilla. The maxilla demonstrated a higher prevalence of first premolar agenesis than the mandible (P = 0.012), while the mandible had a higher prevalence of second premolar agenesis than the maxilla (P = 0.031). There were significantly more males missing one tooth than females, however, there were more females missing two or more teeth than males (P = 0.042). A missing maxillary left lateral incisor was significantly more frequent in males (P = 0.019), while a missing mandibular right lateral incisor was more frequent in females (P = 0.025). In females, the pattern of two mandibular lateral incisors agenesis was the most common and significantly present in females more than males (P = 0.015). In contrast, the pattern of one mandibular left lateral incisor agenesis was only observed in males and significantly found in males more than females (P = 0.047).

Conclusions: We demonstrate sex-associated differences in nonsyndromic tooth agenesis. The prevalence of single tooth agenesis was higher in males, while that of two or more teeth agenesis was higher in females. We found different patterns of lateral incisor agenesis between males and females.

Keywords: Anodontia; Hypodontia; Malocclusion; Microdontia; Nonsyndromic tooth agenesis; Oligodontia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anodontia* / epidemiology
  • Dental Caries* / pathology
  • Dentition, Permanent
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malocclusion
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Prevalence
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Tooth Abnormalities* / epidemiology
  • Young Adult