Effects of Different Vegetable Oils on the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in C57/BL Mice

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2023 Jan 14;2023:4197955. doi: 10.1155/2023/4197955. eCollection 2023.


Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common hepatic disorder, affecting 22-28% of the adult population and more than 50% of obese people all over the world. Modulation of the fatty acids in diet as a means of prevention against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in animal models (NAFLD) remains unclear. The treatment of NAFLD has not been described in specific guidelines so far. Thus, the justification for the study is to check modifications in macronutrients composition, fatty acids, in particular, play a significant role in the treatment of NAFLD regardless of weight loss.

Aim: To investigate different vegetable oils in prevention and progression of NAFLD in animal models.

Methods: For the experiment were used fifty C57BL/6J mice male fed with high fat and fructose diet (HFD) to induce the NAFLD status and they received different commercial vegetable oils for 16 weeks to prevent steatosis. Liver steatosis and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed using biochemical and histological methods. Fatty acids profile in the oils and in the liver samples was obtained.

Results: The high fat and fructose diet led to obesity and the vegetable oils offered were effective in maintaining body weight similar to the control group. At the end of the experiment (16 weeks), the HFHFr group had a greater body weight compared to control and treated groups (HFHFr: 44.20 ± 2.34 g/animal vs. control: 34.80 ± 3.45 g/animal; p < 0.001; HFHFr/OL: 35.40 ± 4.19 g/animal; HFHFr/C: 36.10 ± 3.92 g/animal; HFHFr/S: 36.25 ± 5.70 g/animal; p < 0.01). Furthermore, the HFD diet has caused an increase in total liver fat compared to control (p < 0.01). Among the treated groups, the animals receiving canola oil showed a reduction of hepatic and retroperitoneal fat (p < 0.05). These biochemical levels were positively correlated with the hepatic histology findings. Hepatic levels of omega-3 decreased in the olive oil and high fat diet groups compared to the control group, whereas these levels increased in the groups receiving canola and soybean oil compared to control and the high fat groups.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the commercial vegetable oils either contributed to the prevention or reduction of induced nonalcoholic fatty liver with high fat and fructose diet, especially canola oil.