Mortality and disability-adjusted life years for smoking-attributed cancers from 1990 to 2019 in the north Africa and middle east countries: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2019

BMC Cancer. 2023 Jan 24;23(1):80. doi: 10.1186/s12885-023-10563-5.


Aim and background: Smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cancers. The aim of the study is to estimate the trend of mortality and DALYs of smoking-attributed cancers in the North Africa and Middle East (NAME) countries.

Methods: In this study, estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 (GBD-2019) study were used to report the mortality and DALYs for 16 smoking-attributed cancers. The mortality and DALYs rates from smoking-attributed cancers were evaluated by age, sex, and the 21 countries of the NAME countries from 1990 to 2019.

Results: Age standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for the 29 smoking-attributed cancers in the NAME countries in 1990 and 2019 were estimated to be 24.7 (95% Uncertainty Interval: 21.5, 27.8) and 22.4 (95%UI: 19.8, 25.4) respectively, which shows a 9.2% decrease in the three decades. DALYs/100,000 for smoking-attributed cancers was, also, estimated to be 600.3 (95%UI: 521.6, 682.6) and 515.6 (95%UI: 454.9, 585.4) respectively, which indicates a 14.1% decreased in these three decades. In the last three decades, the percentage changes in DALYs/100,000 for smoking-attributed cancers in males and females were - 0.16 and - 0.03, respectively. Plus, The percentage changes in ASMR in males and females were - 12% and 8%, respectively. Furthermore, The highest ASMR and DALYs were observed in Lebanon, Turkey, and Palestine in 2019.

Conclusion: The mortality rates of cancers from smoking have increased substantially among females, in most countries of the NAME region, in recent years. The burden caused by smoking can be reduced through modifying lifestyle and applying strict laws on smoking by governments and policymakers.

Keywords: Cancer; Global burden of Disease; Mortality; Smoking.

MeSH terms

  • Disability-Adjusted Life Years
  • Female
  • Global Burden of Disease*
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Lebanon
  • Male
  • Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology