We aimed to identify markers in blood (serum) to predict clinically relevant knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression defined as the combination of both joint structure and pain worsening over 48 months. A set of 15 serum proteomic markers corresponding to 13 total proteins reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 73% for distinguishing progressors from nonprogressors in a cohort of 596 individuals with knee OA. Prediction based on these blood markers was far better than traditional prediction based on baseline structural OA and pain severity (59%) or the current "best-in-class" biomarker for predicting OA progression, urinary carboxyl-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (58%). The generalizability of the marker set was confirmed in a second cohort of 86 individuals that yielded an AUC of 70% for distinguishing joint structural progressors. Blood is a readily accessible biospecimen whose analysis for these biomarkers could facilitate identification of individuals for clinical trial enrollment and those most in need of treatment.