Infective Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: JACC State-of-the-Art Review

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2023 Jan 31;81(4):394-412. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.11.028.


Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare but serious complication following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Despite substantial improvements in the TAVR procedure (less invasive) and its expansion to younger and healthier patients, the incidence of IE after TAVR remains stable, with incidence rates similar to those reported after surgical aortic valve replacement. Although IE after TAVR is recognized as a subtype of prosthetic valve endocarditis, this condition represents a particularly challenging scenario given its unique clinical and microbiological profile, the high incidence of IE-related complications, the uncertain role of cardiac surgery, and the dismal prognosis in most patients with TAVR-IE. The number of TAVR procedures is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years, increasing the number of patients at risk of developing this life-threatening complication. Therefore, a detailed understanding of this disease and its complications will be essential to improve clinical outcomes.

Keywords: TAVR; infective endocarditis; prosthetic aortic valve; transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / complications
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / surgery
  • Endocarditis* / diagnosis
  • Endocarditis* / epidemiology
  • Endocarditis* / etiology
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial* / complications
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement* / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome