The genetic polymorphisms and levels of adipokines and adipocytokines that influence the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus in Thai pregnant women

Gene. 2023 Apr 15:860:147228. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2023.147228. Epub 2023 Jan 26.


Introduction: Aberrant immune and inflammatory response is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Objective: To investigate the genetic polymorphisms and levels of adipokines/adipocytokines that influence the risk of developing GDM in Thai women.

Research design & methods: This case-control recruited 400 pregnant Thai women. A total of 12 gene polymorphisms at ADIPOQ, adipsin, lipocalin-2, PAI-1, resistin, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-17A, TGF-β, IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay and RNase H2 enzyme-based amplification (rhAmp) SNP assay. Serum levels of adipokines/adipocytokines were evaluated using Luminex assays.

Results: Mean age, weight before and during pregnancy, body mass index before and during pregnancy, blood pressure, gestational age at blood collection, and median 50 g glucose challenge test were significantly higher in GDM women than control. Significantly lower adiponectin and higher IL-4 levels were found in GDM compared to controls (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively). The genotype frequencies of IL-17A (rs3819025) were significantly different between GDM and controls (p = 0.01). Using additive models, IL-17A (rs3819025) and. TNF-α (rs1800629) were found to be independently associated with increased risk of GDM (odds ratio [OR]: 2.867; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.171-7.017; p = 0.021; and OR: 12.163; 95 %CI: 1.368-108.153; p = 0.025, respectively). In GDM with IL-17A (rs3819025), there was a significant negative correlation with lipocalin-2 and PAI-1 levels (p = 0.038 and p = 0.004, respectively).

Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the need for genetic testing to predict/prevent GDM, and the importance of evaluating adipokine/adipocytokine levels in Thai GDM women.

Keywords: Adipokines; Cytokines; Gene polymorphisms; Gestational diabetes; Inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Adipokines / genetics
  • Adipokines / metabolism
  • Diabetes, Gestational* / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-17 / genetics
  • Interleukin-4
  • Lipocalin-2 / genetics
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnant Women
  • Southeast Asian People
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics


  • Adipokines
  • Interleukin-17
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • Interleukin-4