Cannabis smoking, tobacco cigarette smoking, and adenomyosis risk

Fertil Steril. 2023 May;119(5):838-846. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2023.01.035. Epub 2023 Jan 27.


Objective: To investigate cannabis smoking and tobacco cigarette smoking in relation to adenomyosis risk.

Design: We used data from a case-control study of adenomyosis conducted among enrollees ages 18-59 years of an integrated health care system in Washington State. The case-control study used 2 control groups given the challenge of selecting noncases when cases are diagnosed by hysterectomy.

Subjects: Cases (n = 386) were enrollees with incident, pathology-confirmed adenomyosis diagnosed between April 1, 2001, and March 31, 2006. The 2 control groups comprised hysterectomy controls (n = 233) with pathology-confirmed absence of adenomyosis and population controls (n = 323) with an intact uterus selected randomly from the health care system population and frequency matched to cases on age.

Exposure: Detailed data on cannabis and tobacco cigarette smoking history were ascertained through in-person structured interviews, allowing estimation of joint-years of cannabis smoking and pack-years of tobacco cigarette smoking.

Main outcome measures: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between cannabis smoking, tobacco cigarette smoking, and adenomyosis were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, reference year, menarche age, education, and pack-years of cigarette smoking (or joint-years of cannabis smoking).

Results: No association was observed between cannabis smoking history and adenomyosis risk. However, we did observe the suggestion of an association between ever tobacco cigarette smoking and adenomyosis risk, comparing cases to hysterectomy controls (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.9) and population controls (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8). Our data suggested a 50% increased odds of adenomyosis with >15 pack-years of smoking (vs. never smoking), comparing cases to hysterectomy controls (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.6; Ptrend=.135). The suggestion of a 40% increased adenomyosis odds was observed with smoking >5-15 pack-years (vs. never smoking), comparing cases to population controls (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.8-2.4; Ptrend=0.136).

Conclusion: In the first study of cannabis smoking and adenomyosis risk, no association was observed. However, our data suggested an increased odds of adenomyosis with history of tobacco cigarette smoking. Further research is warranted to replicate our results given the substantial morbidity with adenomyosis and frequency of cigarette smoking and recreational and medical cannabis use.

Keywords: Case-control study; adenomyosis; cannabis; epidemiology; smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adenomyosis* / diagnosis
  • Adenomyosis* / epidemiology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cannabis*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cigarette Smoking* / adverse effects
  • Cigarette Smoking* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Marijuana Smoking* / adverse effects
  • Marijuana Smoking* / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Tobacco
  • Young Adult