Coding Variants of the FMO3 Gene Are Associated with the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case-Control Study

Rep Biochem Mol Biol. 2022 Oct;11(3):430-439. doi: 10.52547/rbmb.11.3.430.


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health concern involving roughly one-tenth of developed countries' populations. The flavin-containing dimethylaniline monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a toxin in CKD sufferers. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the association between coding region variations of FMO3, rs2266782G/A (E158K), rs2266780A/G (E308G), and rs1736557G/A (V257M), and the susceptibility to CKD.

Methods: A total of 356 participants were enrolled, including 157 patients diagnosed with CKD and 199 age-matched healthy individuals. Genotyping of FMO3 gene variations was performed via PCR-RFLP and ARMS-PCR methods.

Results: Our findings revealed a significant association between rs2266780A/G and rs1736557G/A and CKD under different genetic models. Compared to the GGG haplotype of rs2266782/rs1736557/rs2266780, the GAG, GAA, AAG, and AAA haplotype combinations conferred an increased risk of CKD in our population. Interaction analysis revealed that some genotype combinations, including GA/AA/AA, AA/AA/AA, GA/AA/GA, and GG/AG/AA, dramatically increased CKD risk in the Iranian population. No correlation was found between FMO3 polymorphisms and CKD stages.

Discussion: These observations highlight the potential impact of coding variants of the FMO3 gene on the onset of CKD. Further investigations into expanded populations and diverse races are needed to confirm our findings.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; FMO3; Genetic variant; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Trimethylamine N-oxide.