Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Optimize Management of Diabetes in Patients with Advanced CKD

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2023 Jan 1;18(1):130-145. doi: 10.2215/CJN.04510422. Epub 2022 Sep 22.


Treatment of patients with diabetes and CKD includes optimizing glycemic control using lifestyle modifications and drugs that safely control glycemia and improve clinical kidney and cardiovascular disease outcomes. However, patients with advanced CKD, defined as eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or kidney disease treated with dialysis, have limitations to the use of some preferred glucose-lowering medications, are often treated with insulin, and experience high rates of severe hypoglycemia. Moreover, hemoglobin A1c accuracy decreases as GFR deteriorates. Hence, there is a need for better glycemic monitoring tools. Continuous glucose monitoring allows for 24-hour glycemic monitoring to understand patterns and the effects of lifestyle and medications. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring can be used to guide the administration of insulin and noninsulin therapies. Continuous glucose monitoring can overcome the limitations of self-monitored capillary glucose testing and hemoglobin A1c and has been shown to prevent hypoglycemic excursions in some populations. More data are needed to understand whether similar benefits can be obtained for patients with diabetes and advanced CKD. This review provides an updated approach to management of glycemia in advanced CKD, focusing on the role of continuous glucose monitoring in this high-risk population.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring* / methods
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents* / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / etiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin