Factors Associated With Chronic Intestinal Inflammation Resembling Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pediatric Intestinal Failure: A Matched Case-Control Study

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2023 Apr 1;76(4):468-474. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003718. Epub 2023 Jan 31.


Background and aims: There is a subset of intestinal failure patients with associated chronic intestinal inflammation resembling inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with chronic intestinal inflammation in pediatric intestinal failure.

Methods: This was a single-center retrospective case-control study of children <18 years old with intestinal failure. Cases were defined by abnormal amounts of chronic intestinal inflammation on biopsies. Children with diversion colitis, eosinophilic colitis, or isolated anastomotic ulceration were excluded. Cases were matched 1:2 to intestinal failure controls based on sex, etiology of intestinal failure, and duration of intestinal failure. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to compare clinical factors between cases and controls, accounting for clustering within matched sets. A subgroup analysis was performed assessing factors associated with escalation of anti-inflammatory therapy.

Results: Thirty cases were identified and matched to 60 controls. On univariate analysis, longer parenteral nutrition (PN) duration (1677 vs 834 days, P = 0.03), current PN use (33.3% vs 20.0%, P = 0.037), and culture-proven bacterial overgrowth (53.3% vs 31.7%, P = 0.05) were associated with chronic intestinal inflammation. On multivariable analysis, no variable reached statistical significance. On subgroup analysis, duration of intestinal failure, location of inflammation, and worst degree of inflammation on histology were associated with escalation of therapy.

Conclusions: PN dependence and intestinal dysbiosis are associated with chronic intestinal inflammation in children with intestinal failure. Severity of inflammation is associated with escalation of therapy. Further analysis is needed to assess these associations and the efficacy of treatments in this population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Colitis*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases* / complications
  • Intestinal Diseases* / complications
  • Intestinal Diseases* / therapy
  • Intestinal Failure*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Short Bowel Syndrome* / therapy