Prevalence of and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in ten metropolitan areas of China: a cross-sectional study using three kidney damage markers

Ren Fail. 2023 Dec;45(1):2170243. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2023.2170243.


Introduction: To estimate the up-to-date prevalence of chronic kidney disease among the health check-up population in economically developed areas of China using estimated glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin creatinine ratio, and kidney ultrasound.

Methods: Healthcare data from 38,093 subjects in 10 megalopolises of China who had an annual health check-up in 2021 were used. The overall and stratified prevalence of chronic kidney disease by sex, age, region and comorbidity group was reported. The association between chronic kidney disease and covariates of demographics, and comorbidities were analyzed in the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model.

Results: A total of 3837 CKD cases were detected meeting any of the three CKD diagnostic criteria, with a crude prevalence of 10.1% in the study population. Using one criterion of decreased glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and kidney structural abnormalities alone detected 204 (5.3%), 3289 (85.7%) and 563 (14.7%) cases, respectively. The addition of kidney ultrasound detected 427 (11.1%) structural abnormality cases without decreased GFR and albuminuria. The most common abnormalities were renal masses, hydronephrosis due to obstruction and congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract. Female, older age, low city-tier, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia as well as early disease stages such as pre-hypertension, impaired fasting glucose and overweight were significantly associated with chronic kidney disease.

Conclusion: Kidney ultrasound helps to amplify the detection of CKD patients, which is a supplement to kidney function and urine protein.

Keywords: Chinese; Chronic kidney disease; health checkup; kidney ultrasound; prevalence; risk factor.

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria* / epidemiology
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / etiology
  • Risk Factors

Grants and funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.