Occurrence and congener profiles of dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ovine and caprine milk samples collected in a very polluted site in Central Italy

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2023 Mar;40(3):415-424. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2023.2173811. Epub 2023 Feb 1.


Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin-like (DL-PCBs) and 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) were measured in 16 ovine and caprine milk samples collected in the territory of Bussi sul Tirino, central Italy, a Site of National Interest (SNI) due to its high and widespread environmental pollution. All the analyzed samples were compliant with the maximum levels fixed by Commission Regulation (EU) 1259/2011 for the content of PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. In two cases, contamination levels of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were higher than the action levels fixed by EU Recommendation 663/2014. The statistical analysis, performed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealed that the differences in contamination profiles of the different milk samples were independent of the distance of the farms from the Bussi illegal landfill but likely related to local emission sources influencing the exposure to POPs of studied animals.

Keywords: Dioxins; PCBs; food contamination; furans; illegal waste disposal.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzofurans* / analysis
  • Dibenzofurans / analysis
  • Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated / analysis
  • Dioxins* / analysis
  • Furans / analysis
  • Goats
  • Italy
  • Milk / chemistry
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls* / analysis
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins* / analysis
  • Sheep
  • Sheep, Domestic


  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • Dioxins
  • Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated
  • Dibenzofurans
  • Furans
  • Benzofurans