Background: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a rare and catastrophic clinical syndrome occurring in previously healthy patients. Aetiology is still unknown and outcome usually poor. We describe a case of myoclonic prolonged super refractory status epilepticus (P-SRSE) in FIRES in a patient admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit of Padova, Italy.
Case report: A previously healthy 14-year-old girl with onset of myoclonic status epilepticus after a mild febrile illness was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of FIRES. Extensive diagnostic work-up was inconclusive. Status epilepticus and electroclinical seizures recurred every time weaning from anaesthetic agents was attempted. Eventually, a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) was implanted and cannabidiol (CBD) administered, 43 days and 70 days after P-SRSE onset, respectively. Two days after CBD introduction, status epilepticus weaned and the girl rapidly regained complete consciousness showing a brilliant and unexpected recovery. At last follow-up, 12 months later, she is 8-months seizure free on multiple antiseizure medications, has only mild neuropsychological impairment with no neurological and intellective deficit.
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this represents a unique case with an extremely favourable evolution with a possible effect of the association of VNS and CBD to traditional antiseizure medications.
Keywords: Cannabidiol; FIRES; Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome; Paediatrics; Status epilepticus; Vagus nerve stimulation.
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