The purpose of this literature review was to summarise relevant findings regarding the clinical management of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the COVID-19 pandemic, with the focus on patient risks, and the implications of disease-modifying treatment, both on COVID-19 severity and on the response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Although MS per se does not seem to put patients at risk for more severe COVID-19, alongside the risk factors known to apply to the general population, progressive disease course, higher disability status, and B-cell depleting therapies may all negatively affect infection severity. The question of COVID-19 sequelae in patients with MS (pwMS) remains unresolved, challenging researchers to further explore this area. The safety profile of COVID-19 vaccinations in pwMS is similar to that of the general population. The efficacy of the vaccination might be affected by B-cell depletion, as well as by S1PR-modulating medications that attenuate humoral responses to the COVID-19 vaccination. Future research should focus on gathering evidence regarding the clinical course of MS following COVID-19 infection and vaccination in larger studies, as well as on establishing the safest and most efficient schedule of COVID-19 vaccination in pwMS on cell-depleting therapies.
Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccination; SARS-CoV-2; disease-modifying therapy; multiple sclerosis.