Background: Mycosis fungoides is rarely associated to B-cell malignancies, and the few reported cases are mainly internal lymphomas involving secondarily the skin (ie, chronic lymphocytic leukemia).
Objectives: The aim of our study is to describe the clinical and histopathological features of 4 patients presenting with 2 concurrent primary cutaneous lymphomas and review the pertinent literature.
Methods: We identified 4 cases of concurrent primary cutaneous lymphomas in our institutions. An extracutaneous lymphoma was ruled out on the basis of a complete work out. We performed a PubMed search to identify reported cases of primary cutaneous composite or concurrent lymphomas.
Results: Eleven cases of primary cutaneous concurrent lymphomas have been described in the literature. Counting all together (our cases and the cases previously described in the literature), mycosis fungoides was the most frequent primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (TCL) (13/15), followed by 1 case of peripheral TCL-NOS and 1 case of subcutaneous panniculitis-like TCL. Regarding the associated primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, 8/15 cases consisted of low-grade B-cell lymphomas [that is, 5 marginal zone lymphoma (in the most recent classification reclassified as marginal zone lymphoproliferative disorder, MZLD, 2 follicular-center B-cell lymphoma (primary cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma) and 1 low-grade NOS B-cell lymphoma]; 4/15 were associated to Epstein-Barr virus; 1 case consisted of a methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disease, and 2 cases consisted of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-leg type.
Conclusions: Primary cutaneous concurrent lymphomas are exceptional. Clinicopathological correlation and a complete workout to reach the correct diagnosis may guide the appropriate treatment in each case.
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