Correlation of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit With Shoulder Pain in Elite Table Tennis Players

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2023 Aug 1;102(8):687-691. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000002180. Epub 2023 Jan 8.


Objectives: The aims of the study were (1) to investigate glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (a difference in internal rotation of 15.6 degrees or more between dominant and nondominant shoulders) and its correlation with self-reported shoulder pain in table tennis players and (2) to find the optimal cutoff point for the difference in the internal rotation range of motion between dominant and nondominant shoulders of self-reported shoulder pain.

Design: The internal rotation range of motion of both shoulders of 46 table tennis players was measured in the supine and side-lying positions, and the external rotation range of motion was measured in the supine position.

Results: Significant differences existed in internal rotation range of motion between the two sides in the supine ( z = 6.53, P < 0.001) and side-lying positions ( z = 5.67, P < 0.001). Self-reported shoulder pain was associated with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (odds ratio = 6.86, 95% confidence interval = 1.752-26.832, P = 0.006). The cutoff points for the difference in internal rotation range of motion between the sides of self-reported shoulder pain were 17.9 degrees in the supine position and 11.1 degrees in the side-lying position.

Conclusions: Table tennis players exhibited glenohumeral internal rotation deficit. There was a correlation between glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and self-reported shoulder pain in the past year; therefore, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit may be a risk factor for shoulder pain in table tennis players.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Baseball*
  • Humans
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Shoulder Joint*
  • Shoulder Pain / etiology
  • Tennis*