Fluorescein Mapping in Vulvar Paget Disease

Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Mar 1;141(3):608-612. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000005084. Epub 2023 Feb 2.


Background: Vulvar Paget disease often requires extensive and, in some cases, multiple resections to treat. A fluorescein-mapping procedure followed by a staged vulvectomy may be an effective technique to tailor resection and identify clinically occult lesions.

Technique: We describe a two-step procedure; first, intravenous fluorescein sodium is injected, and the vulva is illuminated with a Wood's lamp. Representative biopsies are obtained and correlated on final pathology with the extent of disease to develop a final plan for excision. Second, using fluorescein to identify the confirmed areas of disease, the appropriate excisional procedure is performed once mapping biopsy pathology is known.

Experience: We describe our experience with eight patients with vulvar Paget disease undergoing fluorescein mapping biopsies and staged vulvectomy. Using intravenous fluorescein sodium, all patients were found to have Paget disease beyond the visible margins of their gross lesions. No patients experienced a recurrence of Paget disease within a median follow-up time of 32 months, comparable with other directed methods of surgical resection.

Conclusion: We report a technique for the injection of fluorescein sodium for the visualization of vulvar Paget disease capable of providing accurate surgical margins and identification of occult satellite lesions with a high degree of safety and a favorable cost profile. This staged approach to vulvectomy could offer improved accuracy of resection for vulvar Paget disease with few drawbacks.

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy
  • Female
  • Fluorescein
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Paget Disease, Extramammary* / diagnosis
  • Paget Disease, Extramammary* / pathology
  • Paget Disease, Extramammary* / surgery
  • Vulva / pathology
  • Vulva / surgery
  • Vulvar Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Vulvar Neoplasms* / surgery


  • Fluorescein