Natronogracilivirga saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Cyclonatronum proteinivorum gen. nov., sp. nov., haloalkaliphilic organotrophic bacteroidetes from hypersaline soda lakes forming a new family Cyclonatronaceae fam. nov. in the order Balneolales

Syst Appl Microbiol. 2023 Apr;46(2):126403. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2023.126403. Epub 2023 Jan 25.


Two heterotrophic bacteroidetes strains were isolated as satellites from autotrophic enrichments inoculated with samples from hypersaline soda lakes in southwestern Siberia. Strain Z-1702T is an obligate anaerobic fermentative saccharolytic bacterium from an iron-reducing enrichment culture, while Ca. Cyclonatronum proteinivorum OmegaT is an obligate aerobic proteolytic microorganism from a cyanobacterial enrichment. Cells of isolated bacteria are characterized by highly variable morphology. Both strains are chloride-independent moderate salt-tolerant obligate alkaliphiles and mesophiles. Strain Z-1702T ferments glucose, maltose, fructose, mannose, sorbose, galactose, cellobiose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and alpha-glucans, including starch, glycogen, dextrin, and pullulan. Strain OmegaT is strictly proteolytic utilizing a range of proteins and peptones. The main polar lipid fatty acid in both strains is iso-C15:0, while other major components are various C16 and C17 isomers. According to pairwise sequence alignments using BLAST Gracilimonas was the nearest cultured relative to both strains (<90% of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). Phylogenetic analysis placed strain Z-1702T and strain OmegaT as two different genera in a deep-branching clade of the new family level within the order Balneolales with genus. Based on physiological characteristics and phylogenetic position of strain Z-1702T it was proposed to represent a novel genus and species Natronogracilivirga saccharolityca gen. nov., sp. nov. (= DSMZ 109061T =JCM 32930T =VKM B 3262T). Furthermore, phylogenetic and phenotypic parameters of N. saccharolityca and C. proteinivorum gen. nov., sp. nov., strain OmegaT (=JCM 31662T, =UNIQEM U979T), make it possible to include them into a new family with a proposed designation Cyclonatronaceae fam. nov..

Keywords: Bacteroidota; Balneolales; Cyclonatronaceae; Cyclonatronum; Natronogracilivirga; Soda lakes.

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria, Anaerobic
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Bacteroidetes* / genetics
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Fatty Acids / analysis
  • Lakes* / microbiology
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Fatty Acids
  • DNA, Bacterial