Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

Ear Nose Throat J. 2023 Feb 3:1455613231155853. doi: 10.1177/01455613231155853. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: This study aims to investigate the clinical diagnosis and treatment characteristics of primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma.

Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the data of 6 patients with primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma admitted to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Dalian Central Hospital from September 2015 to January 2022, all of whom were male patients. And laryngoscopy showed that 4 had a similar appearance to hemangioma, 1 had nodular hyperplasia, and 1 was papilloma-like. The site of onset was located on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis in 3 cases, situated in the aryepiglottic fold in 2 cases, and the posterior ventricular zone in 1 case. Five patients underwent surgery, including 4 by transoral endoscopic cryogenic plasma radiofrequency mass resection; one underwent a cervical lymph node dissection and supraglottic horizontal hemilaryngectomy. The remaining 1 case was treated in another hospital after the pathological diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. All patients had no cervical lymph node metastases and were not supplemented with chemoradiotherapy.

Results: The postoperative pathological diagnosis of all 5 patients was neuroendocrine carcinoma. No cancer cells were seen at the margins and base. One patient was lost to follow-up after treatment in another hospitals and the rest were followed up for 6 months to 6 years. One patient had removed laryngeal tumor and epiglottis by a low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation, recurrence 1 year after surgery, and no recurrence for 5 years after supraglottic horizontal hemilaryngectomy combined with prophylactic cervical lymph node dissection, no recurrence for the other 4 patients after 6 months to 4 years of follow-up.

Conclusion: The common sites of laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma are the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis and the aryepiglottic fold. The appearance of the tumor is mainly similar to that of hemangioma. Moreover, a common pathological classification is atypical carcinoid tumors, where early detection and surgical treatment can achieve a good therapeutic effect.

Keywords: diagnosis; hemangiomatous masses; laryngeal neoplasms; neuroendocrine carcinoma; surgical treatment.