The transplantation of organs from donors with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection into uninfected recipients has expanded the available organ donor pool. With the advancement of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), high rates of cure among transplant recipients are possible. Although DAAs are highly effective, treatment failure can occur following an appropriate 12-week course of a pan-genotypic regimen. Here we describe 4 kidney transplant recipients of organs from donors with HCV infection (3 with genotype 3, 1 genotype 1a) in whom first-line DAA treatment with either glecaprevir-pibrentasvir or sofosbuvir-velpatasvir was unsuccessful, started 22-35 days after the day of transplantation. All ultimately achieved sustained virologic response with second- or third-line therapy. Post-treatment resistance-associated substitutions were tested and noted to be present in 2 cases. Additionally, antiviral levels were assessed in 2 cases and found to be therapeutic in each. This article explores possible reasons for treatment failure, including medication interactions, bariatric surgery, viral dynamics, and drug resistance.
Keywords: Direct-acting antivirals; Donor-derived infection; Hepatitis C; Kidney transplantation; Treatment failure.
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