Enhancing public awareness and practice of prostate cancer screening among African men: A scoping review

S Afr Fam Pract (2004). 2023 Jan 17;65(1):e1-e11. doi: 10.4102/safp.v65i1.5621.


Background: Prostate cancer (PCa)-related incidence is on the increase, with black South African men presenting disproportionately with aggressive disease. Recent studies show a greater net benefit of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening of black men compared with the general population. This scoping review provides an overview of available research on strategies that have enhanced PCa screening awareness and practice in the African setting.

Methods: Relevant databases were searched to identify 2010-2021 studies. Following scoping review guidelines, data were extracted, summarised and quantitatively analysed.

Results: Of the 21 articles included, 19 were from the United States. Nine were published within the last five years and 14 were pre-test/post-test. Most articles evaluated the effect of health-promoting strategies on awareness and practice of PCa screening among black men. Community-oriented strategies enhanced awareness and practice of PCa screening. Healthcare providers and community members, including PCa survivors, participated in the strategies' planning, development and implementation. Topics that improve PCa knowledge and clear cultural misconceptions were addressed, targeting public spaces unique to these men. Prostate cancer health education methods were diverse, comprehensive, user friendly and culturally sensitive.

Conclusion: More research on strategies to enhance PCa screening awareness and practice among African men is needed, as this is scarce. Strategies enhancing PCa screening awareness and practice among African men are community oriented and entail health education methods, topics, presenters and venues. These strategies can be adopted in the South African setting.Contribution: This study recommends strategies to enhance the awareness and practice of PCa screening among African men.

Keywords: African men; awareness; health education; knowledge; prostate cancer; screening.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Black People
  • Black or African American
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • United States


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen