Background: Cluster of differentiation (CD)73-adenosine and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathways are involved in abrogated antitumor immune responses and can lead to protumor conditions. This Phase 1 study (NCT03954704) evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of dalutrafusp alfa (also known as GS-1423 and AGEN1423), a bifunctional, humanized, aglycosylated immunoglobulin G1 kappa antibody that selectively inhibits CD73-adenosine production and neutralizes active TGF-β signaling in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Methods: Dose escalation started with an accelerated titration followed by a 3+3 design. Patients received dalutrafusp alfa (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20, 30, or 45 mg/kg) intravenously every 2 weeks (Q2W) up to 1 year or until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity.
Results: In total, 21/22 patients received at least one dose of dalutrafusp alfa. The median number of dalutrafusp alfa doses administered was 3 (range 1-14). All patients had at least one adverse event (AE), most commonly fatigue (47.6%), nausea (33.3%), diarrhea (28.6%), and vomiting (28.6%). Nine (42.9%) patients had a Grade 3 or 4 AE; two had Grade 5 AEs of pulmonary embolism and PD, both unrelated to dalutrafusp alfa. Target-mediated drug disposition appears to be saturated at dalutrafusp alfa doses above 20 mg/kg. Complete CD73 target occupancy on B cells and CD8+ T cells was observed, and TGF-β 1/2/3 levels were undetectable at dalutrafusp alfa doses of 20 mg/kg and higher. Free soluble (s)CD73 levels and sCD73 activity increased with dalutrafusp alfa treatment. Seventeen patients reached the first response assessment, with complete response, partial response, stable disease, and PD in 0, 1 (4.8%), 7 (33.3%), and 9 (42.9%) patients, respectively.
Conclusions: Dalutrafusp alfa doses up to 45 mg/kg Q2W were well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors. Additional evaluation of dalutrafusp alfa could further elucidate the clinical utility of targeting CD73-adenosine and TGF-β pathways in oncology.
Keywords: adenosine; immunomodulation; immunotherapy; tumor biomarkers; tumor microenvironment.
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