QSM Throughout the Body

J Magn Reson Imaging. 2023 Jun;57(6):1621-1640. doi: 10.1002/jmri.28624. Epub 2023 Feb 7.


Magnetic materials in tissue, such as iron, calcium, or collagen, can be studied using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). To date, QSM has been overwhelmingly applied in the brain, but is increasingly utilized outside the brain. QSM relies on the effect of tissue magnetic susceptibility sources on the MR signal phase obtained with gradient echo sequence. However, in the body, the chemical shift of fat present within the region of interest contributes to the MR signal phase as well. Therefore, correcting for the chemical shift effect by means of water-fat separation is essential for body QSM. By employing techniques to compensate for cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts, body QSM has been applied to study liver iron and fibrosis, heart chamber blood and placenta oxygenation, myocardial hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque, cartilage, bone, prostate, breast calcification, and kidney stone.

Keywords: body imaging; quantitative imaging; quantitative susceptibility mapping.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Abdomen
  • Algorithms*
  • Brain
  • Brain Mapping
  • Humans
  • Iron
  • Liver
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* / methods
  • Male


  • Iron