Evaluation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin as biomarkers in dogs newly diagnosed with histoplasmosis

J Vet Intern Med. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16640. Online ahead of print.


Background: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH)D, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin are useful biomarkers in various infectious diseases and inflammatory disorders in dogs, but their utility in histoplasmosis is unknown.

Objective: Determine if serum 25(OH)D, CRP, and haptoglobin concentrations are different in dogs with histoplasmosis compared to healthy controls and whether serum globulin, albumin, CRP, or haptoglobin are associated with 25(OH)D concentration.

Animals: Twenty-two client-owned dogs (histoplasmosis, n = 12; controls, n = 10).

Methods: Prospective case-control study. Dogs with histoplasmosis were categorized as pulmonary, disseminated, or gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Serum 25(OH)D was measured using modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum CRP and haptoglobin were measured with ELISA assays.

Results: Dogs with histoplasmosis were grouped as disseminated (n = 8) and GI tract (n = 4). No dogs had pulmonary tract involvement alone. Dogs with histoplasmosis (median, interquartile range [IQR]; 11.6 ng/mL, 16.8) had lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than controls (35.7 ng/mL, 17.6; P < .001). Serum CRP and haptoglobin concentrations were higher in dogs with histoplasmosis (CRP: median, IQR; 63.5 mg/L, 37.1 and haptoglobin: 459.7 mg/dL, 419.6) than controls (CRP: 1.9 mg/L, 2; P < .001 and haptoglobin: 85.5 mg/dL, 106.7; P = .003). Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with fold change in serum albumin concentration (ρ = 0.77; P < .001), and negatively associated with fold change in serum globulin (ρ = -0.61; P = .003) and CRP concentrations (ρ = -0.56; P = .01).

Conclusion and clinical importance: Assay of serum 25(OH)D, CRP, and haptoglobin could have clinical value in dogs with histoplasmosis.

Keywords: 25(OH)D; Histoplasma spp.; dissemination; gastrointestinal; inflammation; vitamin D.