Outcome measures for Alzheimer's disease: A global inter-societal Delphi consensus

Alzheimers Dement. 2023 Jun;19(6):2707-2729. doi: 10.1002/alz.12945. Epub 2023 Feb 7.


Introduction: We aim to provide guidance on outcomes and measures for use in patients with Alzheimer's clinical syndrome.

Methods: A consensus group of 20 voting members nominated by 10 professional societies, and a non-voting chair, used a Delphi approach and modified GRADE criteria.

Results: Consensus was reached on priority outcomes (n = 66), measures (n = 49) and statements (n = 37) across nine domains. A number of outcomes and measurement instruments were ranked for: Cognitive abilities; Functional abilities/dependency; Behavioural and neuropsychiatric symptoms; Patient quality of life (QoL); Caregiver QoL; Healthcare and treatment-related outcomes; Medical investigations; Disease-related life events; and Global outcomes.

Discussion: This work provides indications on the domains and ideal pertinent measurement instruments that clinicians may wish to use to follow patients with cognitive impairment. More work is needed to develop instruments that are more feasible in the context of the constraints of clinical routine.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Delphi; consensus; dementia; measures; outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / diagnosis
  • Alzheimer Disease* / therapy
  • Consensus
  • Delphi Technique
  • Humans
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Quality of Life