Intelligence, education, and myopia in males

Arch Ophthalmol. 1987 Nov;105(11):1508-11. doi: 10.1001/archopht.1987.01060110054030.


We conducted a nationwide study of the relationship among refractive error, intelligence scores, and years of schooling in 157,748 males aged 17 to 19 years. We found a strong association of myopia with both intelligence and years of school attendance. The prevalence of myopia was found to be significantly higher in the more intelligent and more educated groups. By fitting models of logistic regressions, we worked out a formula expressing the relationship among the rate of myopia, years of schooling, and intelligence level. We found that years of schooling and intelligence weigh equally in the relationship with myopia.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Education*
  • Humans
  • Intelligence*
  • Israel
  • Male
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Myopia / epidemiology*