Diagnosis of histiocytosis can be difficult and one of the biggest challenges is to distinguish between reactive and neoplastic histiocytes on histology alone. Recently, OCT2 nuclear expression was reported in Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD). Our purpose was to expand the testing of OCT2 on a broader variety of sporadic or H syndrome-related histiocytoses. Cases of histiocytoses were retrieved from the files of Ambroise Paré Pathology Department. All slides and molecular analyses were reviewed, and staining was completed with immunohistochemistry for OCT2. A total of 156 samples from different localizations were tested. Among sporadic cases, 52 patients had RDD, and 10 patients had mixed histiocytosis combining RDD with Erdheim Chester disease (ECD, n = 8), Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, n = 2) or juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG, n = 1). All these patients were positive for OCT2 in RDD characteristic histiocytes. Twenty-three patients had ECD and all but two (91% - 21/23) were negative for OCT2. By contrast, OCT2 was positive in 11/27 (41%) LCH and 6/16 (38%) JXG. Among the 10 samples of H syndrome-associated histiocytosis, 3 had typical RDD histology, 6 had unclassified histiocytosis, and one had mixed RDD-LCH; all were positive for OCT2. On 16 samples of granulomatous lymphadenitis, OCT2 was negative in epithelioid histiocytes. Our study shows that OCT2 has a sensitivity of 100% for RDD cases and mixed histiocytoses with an RDD component. It is negative in 92% of ECD but expressed in at least 38% of LCH, JXG, and C group histiocytoses. Finally, OCT2 is positive in all H syndrome-related histiocytoses, independent of their histology.
Keywords: H syndrome; Histiocytosis; Mixed histiocytosis; OCT2; Rosai-Dorfman disease.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.