An overview on the treatments and prevention against COVID-19

Virol J. 2023 Feb 8;20(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12985-023-01973-9.


Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to plague the world. While COVID-19 is asymptomatic in most individuals, it can cause symptoms like pneumonia, ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), and death in others. Although humans are currently being vaccinated with several COVID-19 candidate vaccines in many countries, however, the world still is relying on hygiene measures, social distancing, and approved drugs.

Result: There are many potential therapeutic agents to pharmacologically fight COVID-19: antiviral molecules, recombinant soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, corticosteroids, interferon therapies, and herbal agents. By an understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 structure and its infection mechanisms, several vaccine candidates are under development and some are currently in various phases of clinical trials.

Conclusion: This review describes potential therapeutic agents, including antiviral agents, biologic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, and herbal agents in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. In addition to reviewing the vaccine candidates that entered phases 4, 3, and 2/3 clinical trials, this review also discusses the various platforms that are used to develop the vaccine COVID-19.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory agents; Antiviral agents; Biologic agents; COVID-19; Coronaviruses; Herbal agents; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / chemistry
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • Antiviral Agents
  • COVID-19 Vaccines