Comparable humoral and cellular immunity against Omicron variant BA.4/5 of once-boosted BA.1/2 convalescents and twice-boosted COVID-19-naïve individuals

J Med Virol. 2023 Feb;95(2):e28558. doi: 10.1002/jmv.28558.


The fourth vaccination dose confers additional protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with no prior coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). However, its immunological benefit against currently circulating BA.4/5 is unclear in individuals who have received a booster shot and been infected with Omicron variant BA.1/2. We analyzed immune responses in whom had been boosted once and did not have COVID-19 (n = 16), boosted once and had COVID-19 when BA.1/2 was dominant in Korea (Hybrid-6M group, n = 27), and boosted twice and did not have COVID-19 (Vx4 group, n = 15). Antibody binding activities against RBDo BA.1 and RBDo BA.4/5 , antigen-specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses against BA.4/5, and B-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type did not differ statistically between the Hybrid-6M and Vx4 groups. The humoral and cellular immune responses of the Hybrid-6M group against BA.4/5 were comparable to those of the Vx4 group. Individuals who had been boosted and had an Omicron infection in early 2022 may not have high priority for an additional vaccination.

Keywords: COVID-19; Omicron variant; SARS-CoV-2; hybrid immunity; vaccination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants