Structural Gynecological Disease: Fibroids, Endometriosis, Ovarian Cysts

Med Clin North Am. 2023 Mar;107(2):317-328. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2022.10.010. Epub 2022 Dec 26.


Fibroids, endometriosis, and ovarian cysts are common conditions. Fibroids can be asymptomatic or present with heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure, and pain. Endometriosis is a common cause of cyclical pelvic pain. Ovarian cysts are generally diagnosed incidentally. Transvaginal ultrasound is the performed imaging modality for all structural gynecological disease. Symptomatic management is recommended for each condition. Fibroids can be managed medically or surgically depending on the patient's symptoms and desire for future fertility. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the first-line therapy for endometriosis followed by oral contraceptives and surgical management. Ovarian cysts can be managed expectantly.

Keywords: Endometriosis; Fibroids; Ovarian cyst; Structural gynecological disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endometriosis* / complications
  • Endometriosis* / diagnosis
  • Endometriosis* / therapy
  • Female
  • Genital Diseases, Female*
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyoma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ovarian Cysts* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ovarian Cysts* / therapy
  • Ultrasonography