Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause

Med Clin North Am. 2023 Mar;107(2):357-369. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2022.10.017.


Introduced in 2014, genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) describes a variety of unpleasant genital, sexual and urinary symptoms that can either be isolated or coexisting and are not related to other medical conditions. GSM is a chronic and progressive condition that requires early recognition and appropriate management to preserve urogenital health. Despite the importance of early detection and treatment, the condition is consistently underdiagnosed and undertreated. Herein, we emphasize how to diagnose GSM in postmenopausal, hypoestrogenic, and hypoandrogenic women and summarize evidence-based treatments focusing on prescription treatments and adjunctive therapies.

Keywords: Atrophic vaginitis; Genitourinary syndrome of menopause; Menopause; Urinary urgency; Vulvovaginal atrophy; Women’s sexual health.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atrophy / pathology
  • Female
  • Female Urogenital Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Female Urogenital Diseases* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Menopause
  • Syndrome
  • Vagina* / pathology
  • Vulva / pathology